SF1  SF4  SF2  SF3
[1, 2, 3, 4]

“Damage or deformity to an object as a result of the device being overloaded or forced to work beyond its maximum load bearing capacity”—this does not necessarily result in overall collapse [a]. A structural component is considered a failure when it does not “behave as intended” while in service [b]. Structural failure occurs in several different ways: overloading, cracking, corrosion, and impact damage (damage caused by impact of equipment or other building materials) [c]. These modes of failure are shown in figures 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively.

[b] David Fowler, Lecture, University of Texas at Austin, January 31, 2014